1. The Holy Spirit convicts.
The Spirit’s ongoing ministry is judicial. He convicts the world of sin by the law, persuading us of our guilt and continual need for Christ’s righteousness through the gospel (John 15:26–16:15).
2. The Holy Spirit guides.
The Spirit guides us into all truth, which the Son embodies. The redeeming work of Christ lies behind us, but the effect of that Word is at work in “these last days” by the Spirit’s empowerment (John 14–16; Joel 2:28).
3. The Holy Spirit unites.
The Spirit is the mediator of, not the surrogate for, Christ’s person and work. The Spirit does not replace Jesus but rather grafts and unites us to our heavenly king and head, disrupting ordinary history by placing us into the new creation (Acts 2:14–36; Eph. 4:1ff.).
4. The Holy Spirit glorifies.
The Spirit glorifies Jesus, making him known through indwelling our hearts as a gift of our final redemption. He makes all of Christ’s work our own. The Spirit thus mediates the threefold office of Christ to every believer, glorifying the Son in and through us (John 16:1ff.; Isa. 61:1–2; Luke 4:18–21).
5. The Holy Spirit orchestrates.
The Spirit gives and orchestrates the many gifts bestowed on the whole body through the ministry of pastors, elders, and deacons in the church. These officers are given so we may be brought up into maturity in the faith (1 Cor. 12:12ff.; 1 Pet. 4:10-11; Eph. 4:1ff.).
6. The Holy Spirit remakes.
Through this ministry of the Spirit, which began at Pentecost, we are remade into Christ’s likeness as prophets, priests, and kings. We are remade into true and faithful witnesses in the cosmic courtroom, a choir answering antiphonally (singing in response) in praise to our Redeemer by the power of the Spirit (Eph. 5:1–21; Rev. 19:1–10).